1. Human geography
Ayvalık lies opposite of Lesvos, at a distance of 20 km from the coast of the island and 25 km northeast of the city of Mytilini. It was built on a bay which was sheltered by Moschonissia.
The name of the city comes from the Turkish word ayva, which means "quince". Apart from the name "Ayvalık", which was chosen as the main one, the Greek purist version "Cydoniae" was used (kydoni in Greel means "quince"). The choice between the two names was not devoid of ideological content, while at the same time it included elements regarding the social identity of the person talking. The representatives of the upper classes preferred the name "Cydoniae", while the name "Ayvalık" was used by the lower classes. Regarding the origin of the name many theories have been expressed, but they are rather unfounded.
Didot related the city with Cydonia of Pliny. Raffenel argued that the settlement took its name from the numerous quince trees in the area, which were later extinct.1 The origin of the name was also attributed to a type of oysters (kydonia) that were abundant in the surrounding sea area. According to another theory, the city was a colony of Cydonas of Lesbos. It was also argued that it was related to Cydonia in Crete, since it is ascertained that there were Cretan colonists in Ayvalık. Sakkaris surmises that the name originated from a settlement with numerous quince trees, but he doesn't mention it.2 Finally, Saltellis mentions that the Ottomans called the whole area Ayvalık, and this led to the adoption of this name.3
The foundation of the settlement is placed between 1570 and 1580.4 The first settlers came from the nearby coasts of Lesvos in an attempt to esacpe from the pirate raids and established settlements on the coast, on the locations Chondrammo (Kabakum) and Kambyli Akra (Eğri Bucak). However, since the danger from pirates did not diminish, they moved towards the interior of the bay, in the location where Ayvalık is today.
In Ayvalık mainly lived Orthodox Christians, but there were some Muslim families, more specifically 15-30 families of Ottoman officials, as well as around 10 Gipsy families. The latter lived in the Atsigganaria district. They maintained stores and spoke Greek. According to travelers estimates the city's population before the Greek War of Independence was between 25,000 και 40,000.5 Estimates about the later period are approximately the same. According to data published in 1896 in the magazine Xenophanis the population amounted to 35,000.6 In the beginning of the 20th century 30,000-35,000 Orthodox Christians lived in Ayvalık, 4,000 of them Greek subjects. There also lived five families of Catholics and two Jewish ones.7
Somewhat lower are the estimates that come from the research of oral testimonies, which mention approximately 25,000-30,000 residents.8Ayvalık in the end of the 19th and in the 20th century was the seat of the with the same name and was under the administration of the of Balıkeser and the of Bursa (Prousa).
The heyday of Ayvalik is placed after 1773 and is attributed to the privileges that were granted to the Christian residents of the city by the Ottoman administration. The issue of the relevant took place after the activities of the well known local ruler Ioannis Oikonomos. In this period there was an increase of population, which was the result of immigrants settling there. Apart from the Peloponnesians, towards Ayvalık also traveled people from Epirus and Thessaly, but also islanders, both from the Aegean –mainly from Lesvos and the other islands of eastern Aegean, but also from Syros and Patmos– and from the Ionian Sea.9 These immigrations contributed to the creation of a nearly exclusive Christian city. This phenomenon is part of the extensive movements from the islands of the Aegean and mainland Greece towards the western coast of Asia Minor that took place in that period.
The next significant event in the history of the city was the destruction of Ayvalık by the Ottoman army and its abandonment in 1821. A significant part of the refugees returned gradually from 1827 to 1832, resulting in the re-establishment of the city. In 1832 a relevant firman was issued that determined the terms of the return of land property and regulated the proprietary and tax status of the residents. A new edict that was issued in 1840 determined the subjection of Ayvalık to the of Balıkeser. After the return of the refugees a gradual development followed and Ayvalık became, once again, one of the most important cities of the western coast of Asia Minor.
On June 4th 1909, due to an inter-community discord,10 and after the garrison of the city had been strengthened, martial law was declared in the framework of the political situation after the revolution of the Young Turks. The notables were convicted by a court martial and were imprisoned. Those that dealt with common affairs, but also religious and educational officials, were accused as enemies of the state, while the people were called to "concentrate on the idea of one, great, compact and uniform Ottoman homeland".11 Two months later the martial law came to an end and situation returned to normal.
Initially the Balkan Wars and then World War I were the spark for confrontations and brought about prosecutions of the Christian subjects of the empire. Already from 1914, refugees from Pergamos (Bergama), the areas of the Adramyttian Gulf and from the villages of Kisthini had found refuge in Ayvalık. But also in the city of Ayvalık the situation was disorderly, and as a result some of the wealthy residents had to leave for Mytilini in 1916. On March 14th 1917 was proclaimed the evacuation of all residents aged between 18 and 80 years to the interior of Asia Minor. In Ayvalık remained only 256 people to serve the needs of the military, and the metropolitan.12
After the occupation of the city by the Greek army in 1919, those who were deported returned. Ayvalık resumed its urban life, which was interrupted once again with the defeat and the departure of the Greek army in 1922. Then, all men aged 18-45 were called to present themselves to the Ottoman authorities as liable for military service. From those others died in tragic conditions and others came to Greece as part of the population exchange. Finally, the rest of the population was transported to Greece with Greek ships under the supervision of the Red Cross.
3.1. Primary and secondary production
3.1.1. Agricultural production
Apart from olive oil production, which was probably the most important productive activity, the residents already from the 18th century dealt with viticulture for producing wine and table grapes, with the cultivation of cereals (without however managing to make the city self-sufficient), with acorn production, horticulture and with the cultivation of fruit trees. Their involvement with the specific cultivations continued as long as the settlement existed, but it cannot be compared with oil production. Besides, with the exception of viticulture and acorn production, production was rather small and was used mainly to serve local needs. The same needs were covered by semi-domestic stock breeding. They raised sheep, veal, pigs and poultry, but they did not manage to satisfy local demand.
Substantial involvement with stock breeding took place in the 19th century, after the restoration of the refugees of the Greek War of Independence and the re-establishment of the city, and was mainly confined to large estates. The three largest businesses of this kind were the one of I. Trikoupis, of the family of A. Iliopoulos and the family of K. Pantazopoulos. There was also development of fishing. Fish and shell-fish were from an early time an important element of the people’s diet. We should also mention the production of salt in the nearby salt marshes.
Regarding the systems for exploiting the land, share crop cultivatıons remained valid until 1922. The residents also applied cultivation methods that combined fallow and rotation of crops: usually the land under cultivation was divided into three parts. At the first third they cultivated cereals, at the second corn, vegetables etc. and the rest was used for grazing animals. At the same time, they alternated the above parts every year. After the return of the refugees horse driven plows and then plows with engine were introduced, mainly by the owners of large estates. But the use of the traditional plow remained the most widespread method.
In the early 20th century sericulture was also developed (the female members of the family dealt with it) and beekeeping, but not to a satisfactory degree.
3.1.2. Industrial production
Olive oil industry was from an early time the most important productive activity. However, distillery, soap making and tannage were also developed. During the second half of the 19th century around 80 tanneries were in operation, gathered on the north side of the city.13 Since 1907 the traditional methods were gradually abandoned and factories were built for processing leather from the Far East and America.14 After the Greek War of Independence a pasta industry was gradually developed, while from 1860 onwards flour industry started to be developed, following the replacement of the old flour mills with new ones with steam. A public company founded by the residents undertook in around 1900 the exploitation of the ochre deposits which were discovered near a hill by the beach. The production was sent within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, but also to Austria. Ayvalık gradually became the second important industrial city of the west coast after Smyrna (İzmir).
A multitude of small industry workshops dealt with the construction of tools useful to production, such as baskets for collecting olives (seledes) and grapes, sacs from ox leather for transferring oil (gentekia) and barrels. Special workshops were responsible for grinding the bark of trees for tannery. There were also workshops for iron work, furniture, clothes and shoes, processing of metals, such as gold and silver –but also copper and bronze for domestic vessels–, workshops for pottery, silk processing (kazadika), weapon industry, knife industry, distilleries, fur workshops, stone workshops and an industry for sausage-making. At areas near the shore specialized craftsmen repaired ships. Finally, members of the lower social strata dealt with weaving as a home production.
Already before the Greek War of Independence there were exports of products of the area, such as olive oil, soap, salt and fish, while cereals and textiles were imported . The main market for Ayvalık was Constantinople (Istanbul). According to estimates, for the period from the second half of the 19th century onwards the total amount of exports exceeded 800,000 Ottoman lira.15 Olive oil, seed oil, processed leather, soaps, seed oil soaps and flour were exported. The phylloxera epidemic that had broken out in France created in the end of the 1880’s the favourable conditions for exporting wine in the French market. From 1919 were exprted pine cones, unprocessed leathers from sheep and goats, stone from the quarries in Samoursaki and vegetables. These products were sent to markets of the Ottoman Empire but also abroad. The imports amounted to 700,000 Ottoman lira annually.16
Imports included cereals, textiles, unprocessed leather, as well as all necessary material for processing leather, such as fish oil and fats. Most of the imported products came from the markets of Smyrna and Constantinople.
The harbour of Ayvalık remained shoal, something that did not allow the approach of large ships, which had to be anchored outside the harbor. A significant change was the decision to improve the facilities with the construction of a canal. After ensuring the relevant permit by the Ottoman administration, the ınhabıtants created in 1880 a public company for this reason with a capital of 20,000 Ottoman lira.17 The project was completed in 1882 and contributed in the increase of the commercial activity. This company maintained for two years the right for receiving taxes on the cargoes that were transported.
At Ayvalık there were four markets, where according to estimates had around 1000 stores and small industry workshops.18 The central one housed nearly half of the stores. The other markets were the one of Agios Dimitrios, Kato Panagia and Agios Georgios.
Finally, in the area of Ayvalık there was extensive tobacco smuggling. Tobacco came from the eastern provinces of the empire and was destined to cover the needs of the city, but also the wider area of western Asia Minor. This kind of activities flourished particularly in the end of the 19th century.
3.3. Bank system
Due to the great economic development of the late 19th century, a series of banks opened branches in Ayvalık: the Bank of Orient, the Athens Credit Lyonnais, the Agricultural Bank and -since 1907- the Bank of Mitilini.
According to tradition, the privileges of 1773 defined that the Muslim residents should leave Ayvalık, while others were forbidden to settle there. At the same time, the city was declared independent from the governor of the region in which it belonged. The Muslim governor of the city, the or , was appointed by the community, who were responsible for the pay he received. The Ottoman administration appointed the . It was also forbidden for the Ottoman army to pass or stay in the city. Finally, the community undertook the collection and payment of taxes,19 while it had administrative and judicial responsibilities.
In each of the city's districts -upper, lower and middle- a community elder (dimogerontas) was elected annually. The dimogerontes, in cooperation with a council of nine notables, undertook the administration of the community. They dealt with the city’s taxes and finances and were responsible for the administration of justice and the maintenance of security and order. For this reason, an armed body of militia and night watchmen was created composed of 250 people. Two secretaries were also appointed. The body of the dimogerontes and notables was called koinon, dodekada, due to its having 12 members (dodeka means "twelve" in Greek), or klira. In its sessions presided probably the representative of the metropolitan of Ephesus. The notables did not have a time limit in their office. When there was a need to replace a member, the decision was taken by the rest of the members. In exceptional cases a general meeting was held with the participation of the dimogerontes, the notables and representatives of the most important families.
In 1840, at a time of intense inter-communal conflicts, an “auditing committee for finance” with 27 members was elected . At the same time, after a general vote, the community elected a community council of nine members for the whole city and not for the districts. It took care for the finance of the community and for the fair distribution of taxes, it created an arbitrating body for resolving personal differences, it provided for education and took measures for cleaning the city, ensuring security and order. It also made efforts for dealing with the community debt, a particularly difficult issue.
In the seconfd half of the 19th century the consisted of 10 notables under the presidency of the metropolitan or his commissioner. They were elected every two years and came from the class of eminent citizens. The dimogerontia created the rest of the community institutions (the boards of the educational and charitable foundations). Finally, in every parish reputable members of the flock were elected as commissioners of the churches.
During the reform period known as the institution of the municipal authority was introduced. The municipal council was elected every three years. The process for its election was based on land tax, something that did not allow the participation of all the citizens. From the elected councilors the Ottoman government chose the mayor. The members of the municipal council were Christians, while the board of trustees was mixed. Its president was the , while also the kadi, the , a financial official and the arch-secretary of the administration participated. Five Christians also participated, among them the metropolitan or his representative.
Finally, from 1834 a Greek vice-consulate operated in Ayvalık, aiming at representing Greek interests and protecting Greek subjects. However, gradually it promoted the nationalist policy of the .
5. Social stratification
The particular origin of the immigrants that settled in Ayvalık after 1773 contributed to the creation of informal groups and the peculiar dissolution of social cohesion . The Peloponnesians established a separate district, the well known Moraitika. People from Epirus also created their own district and distinguished themselves as bakers. Finally, the people from the Ionian islands, mostly young and educated ones, with professional qualifications and claims to aristocartic origin, were the first representatives of the city’s upper class.
Gradually two “parties” were created which contested the control of the community and played significant role in the political life of the city mainly in the 19th century. Already from the beginning of the 19th century the first inter-community conflicts were evident amongst the strata that controlled the administration of the community and the urban commercial strata which were on the rise. The conflict had to do with the operation of the school known as “Academy of Cydoniae”. After the re-establishment of the city, the division of the social strata was evident in the area. The representatives of the traditionally important families, which were involved with the administration of the community even before the Greek War of Independence, settled in the “upper district”. In the “middle district” settled merchants and businessmen, who were wealthy but with no social status. There also lived some handcraftmen and employees. Finally, in the “lower district” lived the lower strata, in their majority workers, farmers and sailors. The people of the upper district, finding allies amongst the wealthy people of the middle one, established the so-called “great party” and tried to maintain control of the administration of the community. The ones of lower district, with the majority of the people of the middle one, created the so-called “small” or “popular party”. Other names were used for the two parties. The “great party” was also called “conservative” and “oligarchic”, while the “small” one was also called “liberal”. The followers of the “small party” called mockingly their opponents "chatzides", due to their common practice of making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, while the followers of the “great party” called, also mockingly, their opponents unruly and smugglers.
Harsh confrontations followed in the effort to win power, which at some points reached the level of open conflict, with most chararacteristic example the conflict of 1840. The conflict was due to the community debt and the imposition of new taxes. In the elections of 1841 the “small party” prevailed, but riots followed that led to state intervention, leading to the temporary avoidance of the crisis and the prevalence of the “great party”. The confrontations, that continued until 1880, evolved around the management of the financial situation of the community, and particularly the payment of the community debt that resulted after the restoration of the refugees of 1821, but also around issues of citizenship, conscription and the policy followed occasionally by the “great party” of equal attitude towards the Greek vice-consul and the Ottoman authorities. However, it is indicative that the leaders of the “small party” often lived in the upper district. The death of powerful leaders of both parties and mainly the gradual withdrawal of the older generation, which had lived through the restoration of the refugees, the coming of age of a younger generation that had not any refugee experience and –influenced by the political and intellectual developments of the period– was oriented towards the Greek national centre led to the gradual weakening of intercommunity conflicts. To this contributed the economic development that followed the improvement of the harbor.
Benefaction was a strategy for obtaining social status, while at the same time it was a cohesion factor for society, promoting benefactors as local heroes and models of behavior. Apart from the various charitable foundations, which were supported by the contributions of the citizens, we should also mention the donation of Stratis Manolakis, known as “psychomeridio”. The donator, husband of the niece of Ioannis Oikonomos and brother of the wife of the known leader of the “great party” Dimitros Chatziathanasiou, bequeathed his property to the city with a will composed in 1863. The property included olive trees, vineyards, stores and money. The revenues from its management should be given to the development of education and the support of charitable foundations. According to the will, the management of the bequest was undertaken by a committee of nine reputable citizens, which was elected by the dimogerontia and accounted for it every three years. The “psychomeridio” proved a significant factor for the city’s prosperity. According to another source, those who did not have children bequethed their property for its needs.20
Ecclesiastically the area belonged in the diocese of Ephesus. The conflict between the inhabitants and the metropolitan of Ephesus Ioakeim Efthivoulis, which lasted from 1904/1905 until 1908 and is known as the Ephesian issue, led finally to the independence of the area of Ayvalık from the diocese of Ephesus and the foundation of the diocese of Cydoniae.
The city was divided into eleven parishes: of Agios Dimitrios, of Taxiarches, of Agios Ioannis Prodromos, Koimisis of the Virgin, of Agios Georgios, of Kato Panagia or Zoodochos Pigi, of Agios Charalambos, of Prophitsi Ilias, of Agios Vasileios, of Agios Nicholaos and of Agia Triada. The biggest ones were Agios Dimitrios in the upper district and Kato Panagia or Zoodochos Pigi in the lower one, followed by Agios Georgios in the middle. The church of Panagia in the upper district was built in the lower district in 1780 by Ioannis Oikonomos and was known as the Virgin of the Orphans; it took ots name from the small nursery that operated in its courtyard. In the end of the 18th century a metropolitan building was built in the middle district and next to it the church of Agios Georgios. In Ayvalık and the surrounding area there were 65 chapels, from which 15 were in the city. Various families conducted mass at the chapels in the period between Easter and Ascension. According to testimonies of the refugees from Ayvalık, there was a mosque in the city.21
Georgios Chiopolitis, who martyred in Ayvalık on the 26th November 1807, was considered the patron saint of the city.
In 1852, according to tradition, a young girl saw in a dream the Virgin, who urged her to dig and find her lost icon. The girl narrated her dream and ot was estimated that this should be an icon that was lost in the location of the battle that led to the city’s destruction in 1821. Following a search in the location an icon was found, which was named Panagia Faneromeni. It was transferred to the church of Agios Charalambos, next to the hospital, and a shrine was constructed in the location at which it was found. The event was celebrated on August 23, and many pilgrims arrived there. Another festival, of lesser importance, took place on the 29th of August, at the feast of the decapitation of St John the Forerunner. St Tryfon was also important, since he was considered the patron saint of gardeners and farmers. On the 6th of August, in the celebration of the Transfiguration of Christ, the new grapes were brought to the church to be blessed, while in the summer there was a procession of the icon of the Virgin to the fields to bless the new crops.
Interesting are also the rituals of the various professional groups on the day they celebrated the saint who was considered as their patron saint. In these rituals participated the families of the professionals. This urban characteristic strengthened the cohesion of the specific professional group.22
7.1. The period before the revolution
Concern for education was evident to the city’s institutions already from the end of the 18th century. On the courtyard of the church of the Virgin of the Orphans operated a school of elementary education for the children of the lower district, as well as a Greek school. The foundation of these schools is attributed to Ioannis Oikonomos. There were also rooms where the teachers of the school and the students who came from other places lived. In the school, where there was also a library, taught the deacon Evgenios from Vourla,23Frantzeskos of Kea, Vissarion of Symi and Theodosios of Mudanya. Well known scholars were students here, like Grigorios Saraphis, Veniamin Lesvios and Theofilos Kairis.
Schools of elementary education functioned in the same period in the churches of the Virgin in the middle district and in that of the Taxiarches in the upper district. However, the most important school was the well known Academy of Cydoniae, a vehicle of the ideas of Enlightenment, founded in 1800; its reputation well exceeded local boundaries.
7.2. After the restoration
7.2.1. Educational system
After the restoration care for education remained the responsibility of the community. According to community rules the dimogerontia elected the , which undertook the supervision of the schools. Initially only members of the community authority participated in the board, but later participation became wider. Most of those elected were doctors and lawyers, followed by landowners and merchants. The inability of the board to respond satisfactorily to its responsibilities is attributed to the inter-community conflicts.24 Thus this work was assigned in 1879 to the Charitable Society. After a successful ten-year period of reorganizing the educational system, care for education fell once again to the hands of the board. Later all the schools were placed under the supervision of their respective headmasters.
7.2.2. Educational institutions
In 1839 two elementary schools were founded, the boys' schools of the lower and the upper district. The efforts continued and until 1860 two more schools of elementary education have been founded, where the was followed. These were the elementary School for Boys of the Upper District and the Elementary School for Girls of Agios Georgios.25 In 1873 the Charitable Society founded a school for girls, known as Girls’ School of the Charitable Association or Girls’ School of the Upper District. In 1880 a boys’ school was founded in the lower district after a donation by Efstratios Pantavos. A third girls’ school was founded, and as a result there were three boys’ schools and three girls’ schools. After 1880 high school classes started gradually to be added at the Girls’ School of Agios Georgios, resulting in the creation of a semi-high school for girls. The Central Girls’ School, as it was called, was built in 1900 after a donation of Dimitrios Brikas and contributed significantly to the development of women’s education.
In 1828 the Academy of Cydoniae was re-established and great efforts followed for its further operation. A significant event in this issue took place in 1856, when, after efforts by Dimtrios Chatziathanasiou, a school was built in the area of the old Academy with four halls and the proper equipment. The gradual expansion of the school followed until 1884, when it was recognized as a high school by the Greek state. In 1904, after a donation by Ioannis Malelis, a laboratory of natural sciences was founded. In 1905 another donation by the brothers Kaltis allowed the erection of a school gym. Next to the gym a weather station was established in 1908, which enabled observations, particularly useful to classes.26 Finally, after a donation by Pantazopoulos family, the botanical garden was founded and a special teacher- agriculturist was hired. At the high school there was also a lending library with 6,000 volumes.
Simultaneously with community schools there were some privately owned ones: two kindergartens and two schools that operated for a series of years before 1900, those of Georgios Karamblias in the parish of Agios Nikolaos and of Evangelos Giarlos in the parish of Agios Vasileios. There were also several primary schools in various districts. The latter ones frequently belonged to women. Finally, there was house education, mainly for daughters of wealthy families, as well as for the graduates of Central Girls’ School who wished to continue their education. This opportunity was given to them by the community from 1919, when the high school accepted both boys and girls.
The annual expenses for school maintenance exceeded 3,500 Ottoman lira. A high school fund was established in order to support poor students. Since 1906 this measure included the poor students of other schools. A similar purpose was partly served by the school bookshop which developed into a community one. They gave free books to 400 poor students, while 100 received clothes and shoes.
In the end of the 19th century the elementary schools, both boys' and girls' schools, consisted of five classes, the Central Girls' School had four classes, while secondary education included a three-classes "ellinikon scholeion" and a fourth-classes gymnasium.27 Regarding the teaching methods, we should note the abolition of the monitorial system in 1880. In the end of the 19th century in the high school were taught ancient Greek, Latin, French, Ottoman Turkish, commercial correspondence, elementary commercial law, hygiene, music, natural sciences, mathematics, agricultural lessons and gymnastics. In 1893 elementary pedagogics were introduced in the upper classes of the high school, since several graduates worked as teachers in Ayvalık and the surrounding areas.
In 1900, simultaneously with the high school, hygiene classes were introduced in the Central Girls’ School. Finally, after 1910 elementary pedagogics were taught in the higher class of the Central Girls’ School. This choice was due to the fact that the graduates of this school worked as assistants in the girls’ schools of Ayvalık or nearby communities. However, as main objective of this specific course was held the education of women in order for them to fulfill their social role as good mothers within the framework of a "bourgeois" social and family ideal.
7.2.3. Teachers and students
According to estimates, in the schools of the city just before 1900 there were 1,700 students. In 1914 the number increased to 2,400, who were allocated as follows: 1,100 at boys’ schools, 850 at girls’ schools, 300 in the High School and 150 at the Central Girls’ School. Teachers in the same period exceeded 40.28 The annual wages of the directors of elementary schools in the 19th century was 50 to 60 lira and of teachers initially 24 or 25 lira, while later it was raised to 35-36 lira. The directors of high schools received 120-240 lira annually and professors 100-150. Several of the teachers earned additional money by teaching the children of wealthy families.
8.1. Charitable institutions
From 1780 in the courtyard of the church of the Virgin of the Orphans operated a hospital and a nursery. It is said that the church took its name from the latter one. These charitable institutions were supported by the donations and contributions of the churches and the citizens. Ioannis Oikonomos wished to get involved with the nursery but he did not manage to do it. Didot and Raffenel mention two hospitals. Both were built with donations of the inhabitants. In one of them it is said that there was a sector for the mentally ill. There was also a sector for those suffering from leprosy. As founder of the leprosarium is mentioned Evangelinos Angelos Oikonomelis. Amongst the charitable foundations that should be supported by the psychomeridio were the hospital, the orphanage, the home for the aged, το leprosarium and the insane asylum. In 1880 the Sacred Hospital was founded. It was one of the foundations of the diocese, but it was ruled by a board. The annual budget exceeded 1,600 Ottoman lira. Necessary expenses came from donations. In the hospital there were also a home for the aged, a nursery and an orphanage. At the Sacred Hospital people from other areas received treatment as well.
In Ayvalık operated from the last quarter of the 19th century a multitude of associations of various objectives. Apart from the Charitable Society, in 1882 was established the Society for the Promotion of Education with educational and charitable objectives. The introduction of the class of European music in the high school of Cydoniae in 1892-1893 incited interest to this subject, resulting in the founding in 1895 of two music clubs, and . A group of women headed by Eleni Tzouga, mother of the doctor Michail Tzougas, and Athina Gonata-Stroggyli founded in 1905 the Ladies' Charitable Association. Its objective was to improve the aesthetic and artistic education of women, but also the support of poor girls. They placed looms on the first floor of a two-story building, where girls weaved various items for domestic use. On the second floor they founded a school of embroidery. Then followed the founding of the Gymnastics Club “Aiolikos” in 1906. In 1907 the Agricultural Association was established in order to utilize better the botanical garden and to promote agronomy. The expectations created by the Revolution of the Young Turks led to the founding of the Greek Political Association in 1908.
The Students' Charitable Association, an association founded by the teachers’ club, had charitable aims. We do not know the exact date of its foundation. It operated with weekly contributions of parents and students, who every Saturday placed their contributions in a sealed box. With these donations a students’ library was created; books, clothes, shoes were given to poor students and excursion expenses were covered for them. The association remained in operation until World War I.
Young men of all social strata founded the Association of Merchants and Employees, which cared for entertainment in the city. They rented a large hall on the beach, they organized balls, mandolin and guitar concerts and speeches by young people. The Association was dissolved in 1917 due to the expulsion of the inhabitants. In Ayvalık operated also two clubs. One was strictly for men, while the other organized dances and entertaining events.
8.3. Publishing Activity
In 1819 Konstantinos Tombras founded a privately-owned printing shop, which then was placed under the administration of the Academy of Cydoniae. Much later two other printing houses opened in Ayvalık. The one of Charalambos Vafeiadis, where semimonthly journal Aiolikos Astir was published from 1911 to 1914, and the printing house of the newspaper Kiryx, which started to being published sometime after 1914. Its founder was Dimitrios Peppas, who transferred the publishing rights to Georgios Toumbas. The latter was the publisher and the manager of the newspaper. The newspaper started as weekly, then it was published twice a week and then three times a week. Finally, we should mention the newspaper Kydoniatikos Astir, which was published after 1906 by the young founders of the Gymnastics Club “Aiolikos”.29
1. This is also the opinion of Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, vol. 1 (Athens 1949), p. 32.
2. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 16.
3. Σαλτέλλης, Ν.Ι., Ο Κυδωνιάτης. Ποίημα εις άσματα τέσσαρα (Athens 1842), p. ε΄.
4. Σαλτέλλης, Ν.Ι, Ο Κυδωνιάτης. Ποίημα εις άσματα τέσσαρα (Athens 1842), p. δ΄; Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 14; Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 1 (Athens 1949), p. 26.
5. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 104.
6. Ξενοφάνης 1 (1896), pp. 241-250.
7. Κερεστετζή, Α., Αϊβαλί (1832-1922): Αναμνήσεις από το ανέκδοτο τετράδιο του ιατρού Ιωάννου Κερεστετζή (Athens 1981), p. 37.
8. ΑΚΜΣ (Archive of Oral Tradition, Centre for Asia Minor Studies), Aiolida, district Ayvalık, dos. Α3, p. 178, narrator Panagiotis Zografos.
9. Παναγιωταρέα, Ά., Όταν οι αστοί έγιναν πρόσφυγες (Thessaloniki 1994), pp. 29-31.
10. Παναγιωταρέα, Ά., Όταν οι αστοί έγιναν πρόσφυγες (Thessaloniki 1994), p. 97.
11. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 205.
12. The deportation of the Greek-Orthodox from the west coast of Anatolia followed the suggestion of the German allies of the Ottomans. According to them, in case of a Greek invasion, the Greek-Orthodox Ottoman subjects would offer their help to the Greek army. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 231.
13. Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 1 (Athens 1949), pp. 53-55.
14. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 169.
15. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 172.
16. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 172.
17. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 167.
18. Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 1 (Athens1949), pp. 53-55.
19. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), pp. 20-21, mentions an annual tax obligation of 48.000 kuruş, as well as two para per olive tree.
20. ΑΚΜΣ (Archive of Oral Tradition, Centre for Asia Minor Studies), Aiolida, district Ayvalık, dos. Α3, chap. Η΄, p. 298, narrator Panos Valsamakis.
21. ΑΚΜΣ (Archive of Oral Tradition, Centre for Asia Minor Studies), Aiolida, district Ayvalık, dos.A2, chap. B, Inhabitants, no. 8-11.
22. ΑΚΜΣ (Archive of Oral Tradition, Centre for Asia Minor Studies), Aiolida, district Ayvalık, dos. Α4, pp. 526-528, narrator Giannis Telonis.
23. The issue of his origin is yet unclear. According to another version, he came from Kios (Gemlik) in Bithynia. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 25.
24. Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 2 (Athens 1949), pp. 77-78.
25. Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 2 (Athens 1949), p. 62. Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 161, mentions the establishment of three schools, but he does not give any evidence.
26. Σακκάρης Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 185.
27. Τον όρο «ελληνικό» δίνει ο Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 186. Ο Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 2 (Athens 1949), p. 69, το ονομάζει σχολαρχείο.
28. Καραμπλιάς, Ι., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών: Από της ιδρύσεώς των μέχρι της αποκαταστάσεως των προσφύγων εις το ελεύθερον ελληνικόν κράτος, 2 (Athens 1949), p. 92· Σακκάρης, Γ., Ιστορία των Κυδωνιών (Athens 1920), p. 186.
29. Μαμώνη, Κ., «Σωματειακή οργάνωση του ελληνισμού στη Μικρά Ασία», Δελτίο Ιστορικής και Εθνολογικής Εταιρείας 26 (1983), p. 83.