1. Biography and activities
Theodore Mangaphas,1 also known as Morotheodoros,2 was born around the mid-12th century and was a rich landowner from Philadelphia of Lydia. During the reign of Isaac II (1185-1195, 1203-1204), founder of the Angelid dynasty, he was ruler of Philadelphia, while he also held the office of . Around 1188, with the support of the majority of the inhabitants of the city and the of largest part of Lydia, as well as the military support of the Armenian settlers of Troad and Skamandros, he revolted in Philadelphia and proclaimed himself emperor. He moreover mint his own coinage, with his figure carved on it,3 thus establishing the political and financial independence of his state. In June 1189, when the emperor Isaac II headed a campaign against him, Theodore was forced to capitulate and resign from the imperial title he had usurped.
He is mentioned in sources again around 1193,4 when he confronted Basil Vatatzes, the newly appointed of the theme of Thrakesion and . Vatatzes managed to arrest a large number of Mangaphas’ supporters and the latter was forced to abandon the area and turn to Kaykhusraw I (1192-1197, 1204/5-1211), sultan of Ikonion, seeking his help to regain the territories he was forced to abandon. In 1195/6, having recruited a large number of Turkmen mercenaries, he returned to the Philadelphia area and launched a series of invasions and raids in the areas around the Meander valley, Caria and Chonai, wrecking havoc upon them.5 Mangaphas’ activities were terminated at the end of 1196 by the new emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195-1203), who bought the mutineer from the sultan Kaykhusraw and had him imprisoned.6 In 1204 Mangaphas (who had obviously been set free and had abandoned Constantinople after its fall) attempted for a second time to establish an independent state in Philadelphia.7 His forces however where inadequate and on 19 March 1205 he was defeated near Adramyttion by the later Latin emperor Eric of Flandra (1206-1261) who during this period was on an expedition to north-west Asia Minor. A little later, Theodore I Laskaris, emperor of Nicaea, included Mangaphas’ territories in his state. The latter’s fortune is not known, but it is believed that he died in captivity in Nicaea.
1. The name Mangaphas does not have Greek roots. It possibly comes from a hellenisized version of the Turkish word Mankafa (=foolish, idiot). Savvidis, A.G.K., Βυζαντινά στασιαστικά και αυτονομιστικά κινήματα στα Δωδεκάνησα και τη Μικρά Ασία, 1189-1240 μ.Χ.: Συμβολή στη μελέτη της υστεροβυζαντινής προσωπογραφίας και τοπογραφίας την εποχή των Αγγέλων, των Λασκαρίδων της Νίκαιας και των Μεγαλοκομνηνών του Πόντου (Αθήνα 1987), p. 173, 174, claims that Theodore’s Seljuk mercenaries translated the name Morotheodoros, ascribed to Theodoros,, to their language as Mankato and the Greeks later transcribed to as Mangaphas. According to Savvidis, the lastname Mangaphas, is not mentionned before Morotheodoros’ appearance on the historical scene, neither after him. Cheynet, J.C., «Philadelphie, un quart de siècle de dissidence, 1182-1206», in Philadelphie et autres études (Byzantina Sorbonensia 4, Paris 1984), p. 45, however lists members of Mangaphas family active during the 11th and 13th centuries.
2. Theodore Mangaphas in also mentioned in sources as Morotheodoros possibly because of his continious unsuccesful attempts to proclame himself indepedent ruler of Philadelphia. See Σαββίδης, Α.Γ.Κ., Βυζαντινά στασιαστικά και αυτονομιστικά κινήματα στα Δωδεκάνησα και τη Μικρά Ασία, 1189-1240 μ.Χ.: Συμβολή στη μελέτη της υστεροβυζαντινής προσωπογραφίας και τοπογραφίας την εποχή των Αγγέλων, των Λασκαρίδων της Νίκαιας και των Μεγαλοκομνηνών του Πόντου (Αθήνα 1987), p. 173.
3. A treasure of silver coins which was found in Aphrodisias in Caria is attributed by Hendy, M.F., Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300-1450 (Cambridge 1985), p. 438, note 302, to Theodore Mangaphas, while Pochitonov, E., «Théodore-Pierre Asène ou Théodore Mancaphas?», Byzantinoslavica 42 (1981), pp. 52-57, attributes it to the Bulgarian ruler Peter Asan.
4. Savvidis, A.G.K., Βυζαντινά στασιαστικά και αυτονομιστικά κινήματα στα Δωδεκάνησα και τη Μικρά Ασία, 1189-1240 μ.Χ.: Συμβολή στη μελέτη της υστεροβυζαντινής προσωπογραφίας και τοπογραφίας την εποχή των Αγγέλων, των Λασκαρίδων της Νίκαιας και των Μεγαλοκομνηνών του Πόντου (Αθήνα 1987), p. 175, pretends that Basil Vatatzes was sent against the mutineer at the beginning of 1190. The same opinion is supported by Cheynet, J.C., «Philadelphie, un quart de siècle de dissidence, 1182-1206», in Philadelphie et autres études (Byzantina Sorbonensia 4, Paris 1984), p. 47.
5. In Chonai he also set fire to the church of the Archangel Michael, destroying its mosaics and Holy Altar. See Vryonis, S., Η παρακμή του μεσαιωνικού Ελληνισμού στη Μικρά Ασία και η διαδικασίαεξισλαμισμού (11ος αι. – 15ος αι.) (Αθήνα 1996), p. 115, 140.
6. Cheynet, J.C., Pouvoir et contestations à Byzance (963-1210) (Byzantina Sorbonensia 9, Paris 1990), p. 135, claims that Theodore Mangaphas was imprisoned during this period and places his discharge in 1200. Cheynet’s opinion of this issue is supported by Brand, C.M., «Mankaphas, Theodore», in Kazhdan, A. (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York – Oxford 1991), p. 1286.
7. Angold, M., A Byzantine Government in Exile: Government and Society under the Lascarids of Nicaea (1204-1261) (Oxford 1975), p. 61, claims that Mangaphas had dominated Philadelphia by the spring of 1205 and that he joined Constantine Laskaris, brother of Theodore I in his military operations against the Latins. On the other hand Oikonomides, N., «Η Δ΄ Σταυροφορία και η Άλωση τηε Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, 1204», in Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους 9 (Athens 1980), p. 39, pretends that Theodore Mangaphas managed, with the support of the inhabitants of Philadelphia, to declare himself independent ruler for a second time in 1203.