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Battle of Lalakaon River, 863

Author(s) : Kiapidou Irini-Sofia (1/17/2003)
Translation : Koutras Nikolaos

For citation: Kiapidou Irini-Sofia, "Battle of Lalakaon River, 863",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=7927>

Μάχη Ποταμού Λαλακάοντος, 863 (3/17/2008 v.1) Battle of Lalakaon River, 863 (8/28/2009 v.1) 



A term that during Byzantine times denoted a wide array of ecclesiastic, civil and military officials. In church hierarchy the domestikoi were in charge of special groups connected with liturgical rites, such as lectors, sub-deacons but mainly cantors. In the military chain of command during the 6th, 7th and 8th century the domestikoi were the commanders of the tagmata, the regiments under the direct command of the Emperor.

(from Arabic amir) Emir meaning "commander" or "general", later also "prince". Also a high title of nobility or office in some Turkic historical states.

(lat. clausura) Byzantine military term. Kleisoura initially designated a mountain passage; from the 7th c. onwards it also meant the military unit responsible for the defence of the passage. The term is also used for an administrative division (smaller than the theme). Its base was in a rough site close to the border, and its administration and economy was not necessarily the jurisdiction of the strategos of the theme. It is considered as the evolution of tourma.

(and kleisouriarch) a Byzantine term denoting the commander of a kleisoura or a kleisarchy. These were military units responsible for the defence of mountain passes; the term is also used to desifnate an administrative unit smaller than the theme.

Higher office that Philotheos in his Kletorologion places above the anthypatos. This title lost its importance from the 10th century and gradually disappeared - most probably in the middle of the 12th century.

strategos ("general")
During the Roman period his duties were mainly political. Οffice of the Byzantine state´s provincial administration. At first the title was given to the military and political administrator of the themes, namely of the big geographic and administrative unities of the Byzantine empire. Gradually the title lost its power and, already in the 11th century, strategoi were turned to simple commanders of military units, responsible for the defence of a region.

tagmata (pl.)
Military units stationed in Constantinople and its outskirts during the Middle Byzantine period. The most important tagmata were that of the Scholae, the Excubitors (these originated from respective units of the Early Byzantine period and were organized into an imperial guard and a central strike force by Constantine V), the Vigilia (established by Irene the Athenian) and the Hikanatoi (established by Nicephorus I).

The organising of festivities in Constantinople in order to celebrate the return of the emperor (or a military commander) from a victorious expedition. It included a military parade, lead by the emperor and his generals, followed by prisoners and plunder brought back from occupied territories, as well as games at the Hippodrome. The people of the capital (mainly the demes) usually participated in overwhelming numbers and with great enthusiasm.


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